Abstracts of Marketing PhD Theses: Analysis and Pedagogical Application
Supply chain management, while being associated with logistics, is defined separately in [ 28 ], supply chain management directly impacts product quality and the overall profitability of a company. For these reasons, quality control in the supply chain is critical for maintaining a competitive edge in the marketplace and reducing operating costs. Without quality control, waste becomes prevalent beyond a tolerable amount. Circles are formed by teaching academics working in cooperative groups, or teaching teams, and students working together in learning teams, to discuss problems of quality and to devise solutions for improvements, as well as supporting more effective and efficient teaching and learning processes.
Agile practices have been adopted and adapted into, agile software development [ 17 ], and agile LSCM [ 28 , 29 , 30 ], agile shipbuilding [ 35 ] and in agile education [ 7 ], which, together with the concepts of lean thinking, is now being seen in combination, termed as leagility. To set the scene for these proposals, a quick definition of each of these three terms is appropriate. By defining what is being produced by the HEI on the education production line as the knowledge product, and not the student or graduate as the product, allows the idea of the students themselves being active production line process workers, together with their teachers and other curriculum providers and participants.
A knowledge unit can be a 2-week intensive classroom or seminar situation, or an online e-learning video series, or an entire MOOC presentation, or YouTube video, or a minute video on a particular topic. This definition provides the freedom to deliver curriculum content, or knowledge, in a variety of ways, and which can be sourced from anywhere, or developed in-house. In [ 2 ], the scenario now facing individual universities includes significant competition from many different sources, with courses being available from 3rd party online providers, and the Internet enabling the extensive availability of e-learning materials, the most illustrious of which are so-called Massive Open Online Courses MOOCs offered by prestigious universities and world-leading lecturers, online.
Confronted with these situations, together with the extraordinary developments and advances in computing, information technology, and communications technology, by huge organisations such as Google, Amazon, Microsoft, Tesla, and Facebook inter alia , one can only wonder at what HEIs can, and must, do to remain viable and relevant, even to continue to exist in anything like their current form. Discussions published in many papers on or around this scenario [ 7 ] seem to be mostly concerned with improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the operational and administrative processes of HEIs as they currently operate, and do not address the actual education processes; the pedagogy.
In our view. HEIs must make radical changes to their academic systems, what we have termed here as their pedagogical system. New ways to source curriculum materials, new ways to present those materials to students, new ways for students to access that material and learn, and new ways to assess the learning outcomes, are required. It cannot be a mere reorganisation of current processes, but a radical change in almost every aspect. We must also consider the lean product development paradigm, as espoused in a variety of books on lean product and process development [ 39 , 40 ].
The figure also illustrates the variety of curriculum providers. The knowledge product is then developed and extended by the addition of the knowledge units to ultimately result in the final knowledge product that meets the total knowledge requirements of the course of study. Internally, within the nation, education has developed into a significant cost to the national budget, and as an export industry, is now worth billions to many countries.
Fast-track learning in a leagile pedagogical system is also of significant benefit, socially, economically and educationally, to students.
Teachers must become mentors, curators of information sources, and learning leaders, and students become researchers and self-learners. Students would work in learning teams for mutual learning support and adopt both learning and teaching roles within the learning team. Both teachers and students must achieve a very high level of digital literacy, sufficient to be able to adopt a significant set of digital resources and aids, and have the ability to proficiently teach the students these Internet-based skills and to be able to communicate between themselves and with students, especially remotely.
A high level of blended teaching and learning based first and foremost on Internet technology; e-learning and social media will become prominent, with traditional lectures and formal tutorials abandoned in favour of a substantially e-Teaching environment and the use of social media, with face-to-face learning between members of the teaching team and student project groups. This is not a tutorial on each or any of these methods or terminology, but the reader should use these as keywords for a literature review of each of the concepts.
You will be surprised at how much good information and research is available. The following quotes are especially relevant in the context of this proposal:. We may add [ 9 , 10 ] here as references to two Australian universities with similar intentions displayed in their building design and teaching and learning spaces, and in their intent on the actualisation of online learning and the roles of modern-day students attending an HEI.
Rooms that are learning spaces that are not used to present classes in the usual way are needed. Two news items from the ABC in Australia [ 9 , 10 ] report on the situations that have arisen in two Australian universities. Learning spaces have actually been provided in university libraries for decades, called carrels which, in my experience, were large enough for 4 students to get together and exchange ideas and work together.
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The twenty-first century learning spaces may need a large TV set, a fast Internet connection, devices for attaching to the Internet, for students who cannot afford their own, and licences for a variety of software products, or may just need a Wi-Fi connection. The teacher in the twenty-first century learning space needs to plan, coordinate, oversee and assess the students learning, relying heavily on Internet technology.
In [ 44 ], there is a description of a practical classroom activity illustrating connectivism theory in the classroom. The activity is considered to be a learner-centred teaching activity where the teacher introduces the topic to be studied and oversees the students at work, but the work is done by the students.
I personally have contemplated the use of documentaries on TV as learning experiences.
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As I watched, I saw the Andes Mountains let us go and learn more about the mountain ranges of the world , I saw a chain of volcanoes let us do a project on volcanoes , I was interested in the lush western areas and the dry eastern deserts let us do a project on rain shadows and deserts of the world and how they arose , I saw strange animals that evolved in that area let us do a project on evolution.
These look like excellent social studies and geography projects. Not all curriculum in all academic study areas can be learned in this way, but the principle is there. Knowledge units, Internet-based student-led research, project work, use of all kinds of media now allowed by the Internet and smartphones: these are examples of the application of connectivism theory, together with the flipped classroom paradigm, student-led learning, teachers as mentors, curriculum gathered from multiple sources even learning the tools available on the Internet is excellent practical education. This chapter has been based very much on the personal opinions, experiences and anecdotal evidence gathered by the author.
I refer readers to the literature that supports this approach as being an appropriate qualitative research approach, termed variously The-Teacher-as-Researcher, and Education Action Research [ 45 , 46 ], and also Educational Action Research [ 47 , 48 ]. Higher Education Institutions are commercial institutions in that they charge fees for a service that is provided to students. The service is provided in what is termed here the pedagogical system. HEIs are subject to competitive pressures and accountability in service provision as is any commercial organisation.
The Internet has proven to be both a major disruptive force and a significant enabler of research and education. It is now imperative that both teachers and students achieve a high level of digital literacy. Teachers need to become proficient at the use of a variety of Internet-based tools for searching, illustrating, communicating, developing educational materials, and applying these in the pedagogical system.
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Downloaded: Abstract Higher Education Institutions HEIs are commercial organisations facing the same operational problems as any business organisation, thus needing an appropriate business model, particularly for the teaching and learning processes which we refer to as the pedagogical system. Keywords agile education agile pedagogy lean education educational leagility education technology the 8 wastes of education. The qualitative methods employed in this study consisted of in-depth interviews with the subject, content analysis of emails and social media posts, and dream interpretation.
The quantitative procedures, on the other hand, consisted of administering a comprehensive questionnaire to the subject, with her responses being analyzed with the aid of an extremely expensive and non-reimbursable statistics software. The combination of these particular elements seems to reassure the subject that she has chosen the right career path.
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These were: the lack of creativity inherent in high-level academic work, and, respectively, the abstract nature of scholarly research. In regards to the latter, it appears that the subject cannot help but compare her current academic activities with the nonprofit work she had previously been involved in, as the field coordinator of a digital storytelling program in central India. The second hypothesis stated that the subject would be happy in her chosen doctoral program.
The factor analysis identified two major elements that were positively correlated with projected happiness levels: the appeal of intellectual pursuit, and, respectively, an appreciation of personal independence. The items that correlated negatively with both current and future happiness levels were: concern about her future employment prospects in the academic job market, the presence of material concerns, and a strong fear of failure.
Non-citizenship, indeed, poses further problems for finding an academic job; adjuncts are not offered work visas and must leave the country. Considering these circumstances, the subject realizes that landing a tenure-track job may be the only way to stay in the country that she now calls home, and this realization adds a further dose of anxiety to her thoughts about the future.
Beyond her passion for teaching, a major factor in this area seems to be her desire to blend communication research with prosocial engagement, materialized in her interest in education and participatory cultures. Principally, they point to the internal complexities associated with pursuing a doctoral degree at a rigorous American university. While a PhD is a highly coveted and respected educational degree, it also poses vital challenges and can be emotionally consuming.
Preliminary findings suggest that graduate instructor peer observation is largely isolated to only a few music theory departments across North America. We will analyze the data further to determine the kinds of music theory graduate programs that typically prioritize peer observation and the ways in which the outcomes compare with those of faculty peer observation. Concurrently, we began a peer observation program with 6 fellow graduate instructors at our institution, creating and implementing documentation for specific kinds of observations.
Another form covers targeted observations that focus on one particular aspect of a class period, such as time management or student engagement. We intend to perform qualitative analyses of these forms, expecting to find trends in the most common areas of concern among instructors, as well as uniform responses to specific categories of observation. Further, we will stage semi-structured interviews with those participating in our peer observation program, seeking to determine what personal effects the process has had on their teaching.
Cosh, Jill. Donnelly, Roisin. Hutchings, Pat.
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Washington: American Association for Higher Education. Peel, Deborah. This semester, the repertoire lists for large ensembles at my institution contained mostly music written in the last years. In their rehearsals, my students were playing modal and pentatonic melodies, counting time in changing meters, and, with their colleagues, creating rich, complex harmonies.
In a traditional theory core, a student might not have any analytic tools to engage with this music until after three or four semesters. A semester-long course in fundamentals of music analysis can expand the types of scales, harmonies, and metric systems explored and include topics such as tuning systems and creation of accent. Texture and timbre are incredibly salient musical features and quite accessible topics for the beginning student.
So that first semester students can begin to think about the big picture, fundamental concepts of form can be introduced such as grouping principles, motion toward climax, and closure. At my institution, we are in the process of shifting our first semester theory class in the direction described above, and I will share some of the outcomes from teaching the updated class. Once students have a broad knowledge of musical objects and basic principles of musical form, they can begin to ask meaningful questions about and make sense of any work they encounter. Current discussions within the music theory pedagogy community show trends toward inclusive and relevant pedagogy.
One area of the classroom in which this has not been sufficiently addressed is assessment. Our aim in this presentation to discuss inclusive and culturally relevant assessment techniques geared towards the music theory classroom. We draw upon research within the discipline of music theory pedagogy, as well as educational literature regarding science and mathematics pedagogy, to highlight best practices for question creation. Following research completed by Leigh VanHandel , we will explore how the ideas presented within the science and mathematics pedagogy literature can be applied to the music theory classroom.
Specifically, we will focus on how questions may unintentionally privilege certain students in our classroom through their experience and relationship with the musical examples selected, as well as their reading comprehension ability. Expanding upon Maria Martiniello , we consider how language, syntax, and semantics play a role in the comprehension of musical concepts.
Within this discussion, we explore ways we can modify constructed questions to reflect the diversity present in the classroom by incorporating a varied selection of musical examples within the classroom and on assessments. Drawing upon research by Cora Palfy forthcoming and Timothy K. Chenette , , we will address ways to develop assessments using the more diverse repertoire, and will also examine ways to create newer, more creative assessments across the music theory curriculum. Our goal with this presentation is to provide resources and suggestions for instructors that will aid in designing questions that not only address the topic, but allow students the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge.
This model is logical on its face, and yet in practice it can make musical diversity difficult to achieve beyond a superficial level. In this paper, I explore an alternative model for curriculum design in which the top-down flow chart is reversed: the teacher first identifies musical examples from a variety of styles and designs assessments to fit these styles, a process that informs and clarifies core learning outcomes.
These alternative assessments allow the song, and others like it, to play a meaningful role in first- or second-year musicianship curricula while offering a fresh perspective on core learning objectives. Harmonia is a music theory app linked to a web-based learning management system LMS. The app combines musical score notation with a patented real-time music analysis engine, meaning that the software can analyze, assess, and evaluate user responses such as staff notation, or analytical entries such as pitch names or roman numeral labels.
The LMS provides a platform for content delivery and course configuration: teachers add lessons and exercises accessible by students through the app, set due dates and delivery options, review computer-graded student work, and more. For example, teachers can add or remove playback restraints such as pause, fast-forward, or rewind, and restrict the number of playback repetitions for an audio example. This audio-streaming interface was created specifically to support the needs of the ear-training classroom.
By being able to easily add streamed audio examples with a variety of playback options and limitations, teachers can create a wide variety of exercises and lessons to teach and assess aural skills. This presentation will demonstrate how to use the new audio-streaming interface and will introduce a sample of the latest ready-made ear-training lessons and exercises available in the Harmonia Content Library.
Unfortunately, the effort required by both student and teacher to participate in and manage group work can be onerous. I have found an online whiteboard to be especially useful in facilitating synchronous and asynchronous collaboration. Applications such as Jamboard, Web Whiteboard, and Mural include numerous helpful features; however, Realtimeboard seems best suited for music theory classes because of the ability to embed audio-visual and print media, to comment on specific parts of a score, and to type or draw free-hand on scores.
In this poster presentation, I will provide an overview of online whiteboards and how they are conducive to pedagogies that incorporate the flipped classroom and active learning. Second, I will share two different ways I have used Realtimeboard and outline the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. The minimum technology required to run Realtimeboard is a smart device and an internet connection. The application can run in a browser, through an app designed for tablets iOS and Android , or the desktop version Mac and Windows. To successfully complete a research project, a student must manage their time, organize their resources and ideas, and present their research in a coherent and convincing way.
Strategies that facilitate these tasks are often not taught explicitly in the classroom, and students may find themselves struggling with these skills as they enter the writing process. New technological innovations in app development purport to make these tasks easier. Studies of apps like these in secondary and post-secondary education classrooms have corroborated anecdotal student findings that apps can support lower-level process skills, facilitate collaboration between both peers and mentors, and allow students to focus successfully on achievable goals and higher-order writing tasks Ewoldt ; Reiterer et.
But with hundreds of apps on the market, which apps are best suited for the writing process? This poster provides a digest of apps designed to help researchers with four common writing issues: time management e. Pomodoro, Forest , task management e. Wunderlist, Trello , resource management e.
Mendeley, Zotero , and project visualization e. Scrivener, Coggle. By providing a comprehensive list of effective apps to both mentors and students, we will help to facilitate an open dialog regarding effective organizational and managerial habits, giving students valuable skills to succeed in their research and writing endeavors. Student engagement in theory is a key predictor of success in the core curriculum. Technology gives educators the tools to reach students inside and outside the classroom.
My institution now embraces flipped-classroom pedagogy, so I propose pushing the boundaries. This paper will present techniques for student engagement that interface with technology. One technique is the gamification of theory topics. With video games becoming ubiquitous and the tools to make them becoming more available and user-friendly, the time is right for the gamification of music theory. The paper will also discuss in-class activities, such as the creation of a class album.
The class album is a collection of pieces created, curated, and performed by the students. As we write music together in class, in smaller groups, and individually for homework assignments and projects, the class decides which pieces are the best. Then we put tongue-in-cheek lyrics to them and record them using a simple iPhone set-up. This technique encourages students to always put out their best work, gives them something they can keep after the semester is over, and gives them a clear picture of how much they have progressed as a group and individuals, all of which help increase engagement.
This poster presents software that treats an anthology for sight singing as a database from which instructors can select excerpts based on dozens of pedagogical criteria. Many aural-skills instructors search sight-singing books looking for just the right excerpts by leafing through these volumes and scrutinizing the pages. Whereas one instructor might wish to begin a curriculum with only major-mode excerpts, another might want to include both major- and minor-mode melodies from the outset.
One instructor might want to use nothing but stepwise melodies at the beginning, yet another might want to include skips from the first day. As curricula progress, many more such criteria come into play, including clef, key signature, tonic, mode, range, scale degrees, harmony, meter, and rhythm. As the number and sophistication of these features increase and interact, the difficulties in finding suitable excerpts increase rapidly.
Performing such searches by paging through textbooks is inefficient and frequently frustrating. Software can automate and systematize this process, allowing instructors to pinpoint excerpts from music literature that match specific criteria to meet a wide variety of pedagogical needs. In this way, an anthology of excerpts from music literature becomes a repository from which teachers can extract appropriate musical passages to illustrate specific musical features, drill particular musical skills, and serve as level-appropriate material for singing at sight, providing unprecedented flexibility in designing curricula, planning lessons, creating assignments, working with individual students, and developing test materials.
The poster summarizes the pedagogical principles that guided the design of this software, a brief examination of the process of developing the application as a product, and a demonstration of the product itself. It is well-established that increasing practice leads to diminishing returns in learning and performance. Despite this, many ear-training students and professors spend large, continuous blocks of time repeating a single activity.
This is particularly true of students who may spend an hour or more trying to hear the difference between structures at home such as triads, intervals, etc. In the study, participants listened to triads that were controlled for volume and duration.
Each triad was presented twice, at which point participants were asked to indicate whether the triad was major, minor, augmented, or diminished. Triads were played randomly from a group consisting of all possible roots spanning a three-octave range A2-A5 , totaling training trails. These data will show whether ear fatigue occurs for all students and whether the effects, timing, and duration of ear fatigue are consistent from student to student or whether these vary widely.
The results have important implications for in-class ear-training pedagogy as well as for in-home practice techniques. The development of listening skills is a crucial component of musical training at any level. Such development is often done through dictation, a process by which students put into notation elements of music that they hear. Through my recent work with college-level music students I have developed a new approach to dictation founded on the practice of peer performance: students performing music for each other in a guided, active listening environment.
The introduction of this technique into a number of different theory and aural skills courses that I teach has resulted in improved student engagement and faster progress toward listening-specific learning outcomes including identification of pulse groupings and meter, tonic pitch recognition and relative relationships, and harmonic and cadential identification. This poster presents evidence of this method's success, including practical and written exam outcomes, sample lesson plans with corresponding student performance recordings, and written feedback from students in several different courses.
One section addresses challenges I have faced in attempting to incorporate peer performance into my classes and how I have worked to overcome these challenges. For example, how to make the process of peer-driven dictation equitable? How to choose suitable repertoire? How best to allocate time for these activities? How to relate this process to specific topics within a course?
Another section presents conclusions about why this method has been effective and how I am now working to expand the role of peer performance in the teaching of theory and aural skills. My university has a detailed general-education curriculum and seeks courses from faculty to fulfill specific learning outcomes. I teach two such courses: a level, student class on rap music and writing seminar on music genre, preference, and personality.
These courses balance improving critical listening with other concerns—improving prose writing, surveying hip-hop studies, reading social-science literature, etc. Assessing critical listening in such courses can be more difficult because of an absence of music literacy. In this poster presentation, I will share a variety of critical listening assessments and rubrics I have developed for these courses. For the hip-hop course, these include 1 rhythmic transcription of two rap excerpts in grid notation, 2 formal diagrams of three verses, and 3 a short paper comparing and contrasting the use of a sample in three different tracks.
Non-major students cannot complete these assignments without substantial conceptual and technological scaffolding, and thus I also detail how I use Audacity and Variations Audio Timeliner to give students a metric and formal framework. Performing musicians must be able to hear and adjust to other parts in real time.
One valuable means of developing this skill is the sing-and-play, an activity which involves singing one line while accompanying on an instrument, usually the piano. Part I of this poster presents the merits of incorporating sing-and-play exercises into an aural skills curriculum. While keyboard proficiency limits difficulty, requiring the student to perform both parts builds skill in tuning, rhythm, and multitasking. Some of these goals could be accomplished through ensemble singing, another valuable activity.
However, designing a task that can be performed alone encourages individual practice and, for the purposes of grading, eliminates confounds from a weak group member. Part II surveys material appropriate for sing-and-play assignments in a selection of published aural skills texts. Books incorporating many dedicated sing-and-play exercises include Music for Sight Singing Benjamin et al.
Comparison of the contrasting designs and priorities of these texts will lead to a discussion of other resources with duets or ensemble pieces that can be adapted as sing-and-plays. Part III presents additional materials organized according to a typical undergraduate four-semester sequence in aural skills. These vary from simple scalar exercises to more challenging activities involving repertoire.
While singing unaccompanied melodies remains a cornerstone of aural skills pedagogy, sing-and-play exercises more closely emulate the realities faced by performing musicians. Thus, the sing-and-play serves as a valuable tool in the development of practical aural skills. An essential issue when engaging with tonal music in any theory classroom is identifying tonic—whether listening to a performance or studying from a score, tonal induction is a crucial first step toward answering other questions about harmony and form.
This is, in my experience, the most common tonal-induction error in common-practice contexts, and comes up frequently when a dominant scale degree or harmony is saliently emphasized. This granting of centric status to a particular pitch class by virtue of its perceptual stress is essential to experiencing modes in more modern contexts, to say nothing of experiencing pitch centers in non-diatonic environments. Theory instructors must balance presenting an enormous amount of material with providing opportunities for students to practice and master the concepts; these conflicting goals make class time a precious commodity.
Two sample implementations are provided here. The first implementation of this strategy took place over the course of a semester. Originally conceived as a way to energize students, each day started with a 5-minute team activity that involved students working at the board. Every teammate was required to complete part of the task and points were awarded for speed and accuracy and tracked throughout the semester.
These activities fostered peer-to-peer learning as students who understood the material explained concepts to their teammates. They also gave students regular opportunities to practice new material. Another implementation spanned three weeks of a post-tonal unit, where a short series of review games was used to counteract attrition of set theory skills. Students worked in teams to complete each worksheet; scores were kept cumulatively, and the winning team won a prize.
Students were also provided with take-home worksheets for review as needed; they could use the worksheets to practice skills that they found lacking as they worked in class, or to prepare for the larger assessment at the end of the term. This strategy is easily modified to fit different content needs and time constraints. Somewhat paradoxically, holding a timed activity at the beginning of class can both increase motivation to arrive on time and serve to immediately focus the attention of all students as they jump into the review game.
The mixture of mild competition and gamification makes these activities well received, and students indicate that they appreciate the sacrifice of time. Gamification has rapidly proliferated throughout our culture, from marketing Starbucks drinks to inspiring millions to get off the couch and exercise. Increasingly, online and in-person learning environments are incorporating games into individual lessons as well as overall course structures in order to motivate students, inspire interactive learning, and provide opportunities for multi-modal experimentation with newly acquired knowledge.
For musicians in general, opportunities to bolster individual skill sets in an interactive environment serve as training for future roles as teachers, collaborators, and chamber and orchestral musicians. The theory core typically offers limited space for teaching large-scale forms; as such, it is all too tempting to choose the most straightforward and unambiguous examples to analyze with students.
Such an attitude, however, too often leads students to conclude that common-practice music fits neatly into tidy boxes. The consequences of this can be severe: if students feel that they are merely mechanistically applying formal labels, learning formal types becomes not only uninteresting but also unmusical. We would like to advocate for another approach, employing inquiry-based learning Schaffer to explore the beautiful messiness of formally ambiguous pieces immediately after learning the textbook large forms.
Ambiguous pieces allow students not only to apply form terminology, but also to critically engage with what it means, as well as to confront the idea that it might not always neatly align with actual music. For the instructor, however, this creates the challenge of identifying repertoire that meaningfully departs from yet engages with classical norms, while still being accessible to students who know only the basics of Formenlehre. This poster demonstrates how we incorporate this principle into our own core classes at a small liberal arts college and a regional public university.
We show two pieces that reinforce sonata-exposition terminology Schubert Octet, D. These pieces allow students to confront formal ambiguity in early Romantic form—something not always possible within the time constraints of a traditional sonata-form unit. In addition, we will provide a list of additional examples and suggestions for in-class discussion and homework assignments. This poster presents findings from a two-part research project aimed at collecting everyday listening samples in a naturalistic setting.
The project is conducted by a small music theory club sponsored by a music theory faculty member with the aim of applying learned theory techniques to everyday popular music. If students are listening to a wide variety of musical styles of varying complexities, what sorts of analytical tools must one develop in order to integrate such diversity? Our project is inspired by continued efforts to broaden repertoire lists within the standard two-year theory curriculum——as evidenced in pedagogy special sessions at national SMT and CMS conferences——and the inclusive outreach of the public music theory movement.
Part I presents the results of a survey IRB in which 50 students actively listening to music at a four-year university campus were asked a series of questions related to their listening choices; this information will be provided in a supplemental handout at the conference. The poster will focus on results from Part II, which presents analytical results from randomly generated second excerpts of songs gathered in Part I. The analysis is based on basic parameters established by the researchers to determine relative complexity. While complexity is a slippery characteristic of music to measure, it will be defined in this survey as the relative density between musical selections listened to by our participants limited to the following four categories: 1 harmony and harmonic rhythm, 2 rhythmic and metric patterns, 3 instrumental virtuosity, and 4 textural changes.
An original rubric was established in order to operationally measure each parameter between analysts, which has been successfully tested in a pilot study. Student music surveys and the analysis of their musical selections are currently underway. Results will be presented at the Pedagogy into Practice conference. Over the years, I have structured my upper-level elective Form and Analysis class in a variety of ways. Eventually, I felt acutely that the practice of choosing pieces to demonstrate specific forms was limiting.
Because I was choosing pieces that clearly demonstrated formal types, students lacked the benefit of diving deeply into complete works see Alegant, Engaging Students 2. Several years ago, I re-engineered the course in two ways. First, I organized it chronologically, beginning with Baroque and ending with late Romantic music. Second, I focused as much as possible on complete works. Choosing complete works means that we confront music that can sometimes get messy, which allows the practice of analysis to be portrayed as an art form rather than an exercise in taxonomy.
A chronological approach also facilitates reinforcement of music history and style characteristics. I will demonstrate how an in-depth study of this four-movement work allows discussion of striking inter-movement connections, phrase rhythm and metric dissonance, chromatic pitch relationships, and formal oddities. This poster also shows how my use of assessment projects, assignments, exams reflects a core learning outcome of the course: that students become intimately familiar with the works we study in class.
What if the best way to introduce our undergraduate students to the idea of a musical motive was not a textbook definition or an audio clip and score of the first movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, but instead an extended look at a piece from one of the successful American composers of the twentieth century? In The Tattooed Bride, an eleven-minute piece originally performed by his orchestra at Carnegie Hall and issued on one of the first inch jazz LPs in , Duke Ellington develops a simple and aurally identifiable motive throughout—a fact often mentioned in Ellington scholarship, but rarely if ever!
This poster outlines a process by which students can engage with this music and productively learn concepts typically associated with European classical music. This example also provides an opportunity to discuss issues bigger than "the music itself" in the theory classroom, because Ellington's motivic exercise was likely prompted by the savage reaction critics leveled against his ambitious tone poem Black, Brown, and Beige several years prior. In The Tattooed Bride, Ellington strove for "motivic unity" and "formal coherence," workshopping the technique so he could re-apply it to his later programmatic work Harlem.
Teaching timbre: a practical plan for including timbre in the undergraduate post-tonal theory classroom. Several standard undergraduate theory texts neglect timbral organization altogether or mention it only in passing; those that do discuss it in some detail e. This poster offers a pragmatic approach to introducing students to the analysis of timbre in post-tonal repertoire, drawing upon existing work by authors including Blake, Cogan and Escot, Cox, Leydon, Lochhead, Rifkin, Siegel, Slawson, and Smalley. Learning outcomes targeted are development of: 1 awareness of and vocabulary for describing timbral attributes beyond source identification; 2 ability to understand and explain the experience of sound in relation to embodiment; and 3 understanding how timbral relationships structure musical narratives.
Findings are presented in the form of four lesson plans, conceived as self-contained modules to be mixed and matched as desired. Each plan suggests additional repertoire to support expansion, as well as possible assessments. In my presentation, I will share a chart that students and instructors could use in a review class which summarizes these errors in a concise manner. For instructors, they could use the chart to survey the common errors to guide them to create review exercises that are tailored to help students to improve on their work.
Also, I will show how users could take this chart and customize it according to their studying and teaching needs, and extend it to incorporate harmonic analysis questions and scenarios. This poster demonstrates a tool—the Parsimonious Voice-leading Index PVI —that can improve scores on freshmen part-writing exercises by over 3 points.
Parsimonious voice-leading is a term used by Neo-Riemannian theorists to describe harmonic transformations created by stepwise motion. Stepwise and common tone connections provide the smoothest path for voice-leading, and when lacking, often becomes the root cause for part-writing errors. Unnecessary leaps lead to a variety of errors that are not detected by the students. The PVI is calculated by summing the generic pitch intervals contained within each of the soprano, alto and tenor voices. The instructor provides a target value based on a correct solution using as much parsimonious voice-leading as possible with each assignment.
If the PVI is not the same, then the exercise possibly has errors that should be corrected prior to grading. PVI will not directly show the students the errors, but a close inspection of the pitch intervals should reveal the location of potential errors. The experimental group was taught to use PVI. Four Roman numeral exercises were realized, with the experimental group being asked to use PVI to improve their part-writing.
Abstracts of Marketing PhD Theses: Analysis and Pedagogical Application
The experimental group scored an average of 3. Music theory courses often focus on sets of rules at the outset, only to back-pedal later sometimes apologetically to deal with exceptions. What if those exceptions could be integrated from the outset without undue cognitive load? This useful educative role for algorithmically generated material is sometimes exploited in the naturally sympathetic context of algorithmic composition Brown , but extremely rare in music theory despite the ubiquity of de facto algorithms.
To show how this can work in the classroom, the process is illustrated with examples for teaching harmony: the harmonic reduction of an existing score, and the harmonization of a tune ab initio. We present algorithms based on commonly invoked rules in layman terms which would be suitable for teaching , evaluate the intermediary scores they generate, and return to see whether or not we can meaningfully improve the algorithm.
Brown, A. Music has long been used as an instructional method, especially to teach young children the alphabet, body parts, and other basic information about life.